Apologetic Rhetoric

As part of my research, I’ve put together the following list of academic resources on apologetic rhetoric:wing is a list of journal articles, chapters, and academic books on apologia, apology, and image repair.

Abadi, A. (1990). The speech act of apology in political life. Journal of Pragmatics, 14, 467–487.

Armstrong, R. N., Hallmark, J. R., & Williamson, L. K. (2005). Televangelism as institutional apologia: The religious talk show as strategized text. Journal of Media and Religion, 4, 67–83.

Bachman, G. F., & Guerrero, L. K. (2006). Forgiveness, apology, and communicative responses to hurtful events. Communication Reports, 19, 45–56.

Barkan, E., & Karn, A., (Eds.). (2006). Taking wrongs seriously: Apologies and reconciliation. Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press.

Benoit, W. L. (1982). Richard M. Nixon’s rhetorical strategies in his public statements on Watergate. Southern Speech Communication Journal, 47, 192–211.

Benoit, W. L. (1995a). Accounts, excuses, and apologies: A theory of image restoration strategies. Albany: State University of New York SUNY Press.

Benoit, W. L. (1995b). Sears’ repair of its auto service image: Image restoration discourse in the corporate sector. Communication Studies, 46, 89–105.

Benoit, W. L. (1997a). Hugh Grant’s image restoration discourse: An actor apologizes. Communication Quarterly, 45, 251–267.

Benoit, W. L. (1997b). Image repair discourse and crisis communication. Public Relations Review, 23, 177–186.

Benoit, W. L. (2000). Another visit to the theory of image restoration strategies. Communication Quarterly, 48, 40–44.

Benoit, W. L. (2006a). Image repair in President Bush’s April 2004 news conference. Public Relations Review, 32, 137–143.

Benoit, W. L. (2006b). President Bush’s image repair effort on Meet the Press: The complexities of defeasibility. Journal of Applied Communication Research, 34, 285–306.

Benoit, W. L., & Anderson, K. K. (1997). Blending politics and entertainment: Dan Quayle versus Murphy Brown. Southern Communication Journal, 62, 73–85.

Benoit, W. L., & Brinson, S. L. (1994). AT&T: Apologies are not enough. Communication Quarterly, 42, 75–88.

Benoit, W. L., & Brinson, S. L. (1999). Queen Elizabeth’s image repair discourse: Insensitive royal or compassionate queen? Public Relations Review, 25, 145–156.

Benoit, W. L., & Czerwinski, A. (1997). A critical analysis of USAir’s image repair discourse. Business Communication Quarterly, 60, 38–57.

Benoit, W. L., Gullifor, P., & Panici, D. A. (1991). Reagan’s discourse on the Iran-Contra affair. Communication Studies, 42, 272–294.

Benoit, W. L., & Hanczor, R. S. (1994). The Tonya Harding controversy: An analysis of image restoration strategies. Communication Quarterly, 42, 416–433.

Benoit, W. L., & McHale, J. P. (1999). Kenneth Starr’s image repair discourse viewed in 20/20. Communication Quarterly, 47, 265–280.

Benoit, W. L., & Nill, D. M. (1998a). A critical analysis of Judge Clarence Thomas’ statement before the Senate Judiciary Committee. Communication Studies, 39, 179–195.

Benoit, W. L., & Nill, D. M. (1998b). Oliver Stone’s defense of JFK. Communication Quarterly, 46, 127–143.

Benson, J. A. (1988). Crisis revisited: An analysis of strategies used by Tylenol in the second tampering episode. Central States Speech Journal, 39, 49–66.

Berlin, L. (2006). Will saying “I’m sorry” prevent a malpractice lawsuit? American Journal of Roentgenology, 187, 10–15.

Blair, C. (1984). From “All the President’s Men” to every man for himself: The strategies of post-Watergate apologia. Central States Speech Journal, 35, 250–260.

Blaney, J. R. (2001). Restoring the juridical image: Apologia for Ex Corde Ecclesiae. Journal of Communication and Religion, 24, 94–109.

Blaney, J. R., & Benoit, W. L. (1997). The persuasive defense of Jesus in the Gospel According to John. Journal of Communication and Religion, 20, 25–30.

Blaney, J. R., & Benoit, W. L. (2001). The Clinton scandals and the politics of image restoration. Westport, CT: Praeger.

Brinson, S. L., & Benoit, W. L. (1996). Dow Corning’s image repair strategies in the breast implant crisis. Communication Quarterly, 44, 29–41.

Brinson, S. L., & Benoit, W. L. (1999). The tarnished star: Restoring Texaco’s Damaged public image. Management Communication Quarterly, 12, 483–510.

Brooks, R. L. (Ed.). (1999). When sorry isn’t enough: The controversy over apologies and reparations for human injustice. New York: New York University Press.

Brown, G. (1990). Jerry Falwell and the PTL: The rhetoric of apologia. Journal of Communication and Religion, 14, 9–18.

Brummett, B. (1981). Burkean scapegoating, mortification, and transcendence in presidential campaign rhetoric. Central States Speech Journal, 32, 254–264.

Buck, C. (2006). “Never again”: Kevin Gover’s apology for the Bureau of Indian Affairs. Wicazo Sa Review: A Journal of Native American Studies, 21, 97–126.

Burke, K. (1969). A rhetoric of motives. Berkeley: University of California Press. Burke, K. (1970). The rhetoric of religion: Studies in logology. Berkeley: University of California Press.

Burkholder, T. R. (1990). Symbolic martyrdom: The ultimate apology. Southern Communication Journal, 56, 289–297.

Burns, J. P., & Bruner, M. S. (2000). Revisiting the theory of image restoration strategies. Communication Quarterly, 48, 27–39.

Butler, S. D. (1972). The apologia, 1971 genre. Southern Speech Communication Journal, 36, 281–289.

Carcasson, M., & Aune, J. A. (2003). Klansman of the court: Justice Hugo Black’s 1937 radio address to the nation. Quarterly Journal of Speech, 89, 154–170.

Carlson, A. C., & Hocking, J. E. (1988). Strategies of redemption at the Vietnam Veterans Memorial. Western Journal of Speech Communication, 52, 203–215.

Carmack, H. J. (2008). How to say I’m sorry: A study of the Veteran’s Administration Hospital Association’s apology and disclosure program. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, Ohio University, Athens, OH.

Celermajer, D. (2006). The apology in Australia: Re-covenanting the national imaginary. In E. Barkan & A. Karn (Eds.), Taking wrongs seriously: Apologies and reconciliation (pp. 153–184). Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press.

Cohen, J. R. (2001). Apology and organizations: Exploring an example from medical practice. Fordham Urban Law Journal, 27, 1447–1482.

Coombs, W. T. (1998). An analytic framework for crisis situations: Better responses from a better understanding of the situation. Journal of Public Relations Research, 10, 177–191.

Coombs, W. T. (1999). Ongoing crisis communication: Planning, managing, and responding. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.

Coombs, W. T. (2004). West Pharmaceutical’s explosion: Structuring crisis discourse knowledge. Public Relations Review, 30, 467–473.

Coombs, W. T., & Schmidt, L. (2000). An empirical analysis of image restoration: Texaco’s racism crisis. Journal of Public Relations Research, 12, 163–178.

Courtright, J. L., & Hearit, K. M. (2002). The good organization speaking well: A paradigm case for religious institutional crisis management. Public Relations Review, 28, 347–360.

Cowden, K., & Sellnow, T. L. (2002). Issues advertising as crisis communication: Northwest Airline’s use of image restoration strategies during the 1998 pilot’s strike. Journal of Business Communication, 39, 193–219.

Davies, B. L., Merrison, A. J., & Goddard, A. (2007). Institutional apologies in UK higher education: Getting back into the black before going into the red. Journal of Politeness Research, 3, 39–63.

Dodds, G. G. (2003). Racial apologies. In J. Rodin & S. P. Steinberg (Eds.), Public discourse in America: Conversation and community in the twenty-first century (pp. 135–160). Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press.

Drumheller, K., & Benoit, W. L. (2004). USS Greenville collides with Japan’s Ehime Maru: Cultural issues in image repair discourse. Public Relations Review, 30, 177–185.

Edwards, J. A. (2005). Community-focused apologia in international affairs: Japanese Prime Minister Tomiichi Murayma’s apology. The Howard Journal of Communications, 16, 317–336.

Edwards, J. A. (2008). The mission of healing: Kofi Annan’s failed apology. Atlantic Journal of Communication, 16, 88–104.

Fearn-Banks, K. (2007). Crisis communications: A casebook approach. Mahwah, NJ: Erlbaum.

Foss, S. K. (1984). Retooling an image: Chrysler Corporation’s rhetoric of redemption. Western Journal of Speech Communication, 48, 75–91.

Goffman, E. (1971). Relations in public: Microstudies of public order. New York: Basic Books.

Gold, E. R. (1978). Political apologia: The ritual of self-defense. Communication Monographs, 45, 306–316.

Gordon, D. B., & Crenshaw, C. (2004). Racial apologies. In P. A. Sullivan & S. R.

Govier, T. (2006). Taking wrongs seriously: Acknowledgment, reconciliation, and the politics of sustainable peace. Amherst, NY: Humanity Books.

Govier, T., & Verwoerd, W. (2002). The promise and pitfalls of apology. Journal of Social Philosophy, 33, 67–82.

Harrell, J., Ware, B. L., & Linkugel, W. A. (1975). Failure of apology in American politics: Nixon on Watergate. Speech Monographs, 42, 245–261.

Harris, S., Grainger, K., & Mullany, L. (2006). The pragmatics of political apologies. Discourse & Society, 17, 715–737.

Harter, L. M., Stephens, R. J., & Japp, P. M. (2000). President Clinton’s apology for the Tuskegee syphilis experiment: A narrative of remembrance, redefinition, and reconciliation. Howard Journal of Communications, 11, 19–34.

Hatch, J. B. (2003). Reconciliation: Building a bridge from complicity to coherence in the rhetoric of race relations. Rhetoric & Public Affairs, 6, 737–764.

Hatch, J. B. (2006a). Beyond apologia: Racial reconciliation and apologies for slavery. Western Journal of Communication, 70, 186–211.

Hatch, J. B. (2006b). The hope of reconciliation: Continuing the conversation. Rhetoric and Public Affairs, 9, 259–278.

Hawk, G. W. (2007). Mending the broken branch: Forgiveness and reconciliation. In W. W. Wilmot & J. L. Hocker (Eds.), Interpersonal conflict (7th ed., pp. 297–325). Boston: McGraw-Hill.

Hearit, K. M. (1994). Apologies and public relations crises at Chrysler, Toshiba, and Volvo. Public Relations Review, 20, 113–125.

Hearit, K. M. (1995). “Mistakes were made”: Organizations, apologia, and crises of social legitimacy. Communication Studies, 46, 1–17.

Hearit, K. M. (1996). The use of counter-attack in apologetic public relations crises: The case of General Motors vs. Dateline NBC. Public Relations Review, 22, 233–248.

Hearit, K. M. (1997). On the use of transcendence as an apologia strategy: The case of Johnson Controls and its fetal protection policy. Public Relations Review, 23, 217–231.

Hearit, K. M. (1999). Newsgroups, activist publics, and corporate apologia: The case of Intel and its Pentium chip. Public Relations Review, 25, 291–308.

Hearit, K. M. (2006). Crisis management by apology: Corporate response to allegations of wrongdoing. Mahwah, NJ: Erlbaum.

Hearit, K. M., & Brown, J. (2004). Merrill Lynch: Corporate apologia and business fraud. Public Relations Review, 30, 459–466.

Hearit, K. M., & Courtright, J. L. (2003). A social constructionist approach to crisis management: Allegations of sudden acceleration in the Audi 5000. Communication Studies, 54, 79–95.

Hobbs, J. D. (1995). Treachery by any other name: A case study of the Toshiba public relations crisis. Management Communication Quarterly, 8, 323–346.

Hoover, J. D. (1989). Big boys don’t cry: The values constraint in apologia. Southern Communication Journal, 54, 235–252.

Howard-Hassmann, R. E., & Lombardo, A. P. (2008). Words require action: African elite opinion about apologies from the “West.” In M. Gibney, R. E. Howard-Hassmann, J-M. Coicaud, & N. Steiner (Eds.), The age of apology: Facing up to the past (pp. 216–228). Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press.

Huang, Y., Lin, Y., & Su, S. (2005). Crisis communication strategies in Taiwan: Category, continuum, and cultural implication. Public Relations Review, 31, 229–238.

Huxman, S. S., & Bruce, D. B. (1995). Toward a dynamic generic framework of apologia: A case study of Dow Chemical, Vietnam, and the Napalm controversy. Communication Studies, 46, 57–72.

Ice, R. (1991). Corporate publics and rhetorical strategies: The case of Union Carbide’s Bhopal crisis. Management Communication Quarterly, 4, 341–362.

Jerome, A. M. (2008). Toward prescription: Testing the rhetoric of atonement’s applicability in the athletic arena. Public Relations Review, 34, 124–134.

Johnson, C. S. (2006). Prediscursive technical communication in the early American iron industry. Technical Communication Quarterly, 15, 171–189.

Kampf, Z., & Blum-Kulka, S. (2007). Do children apologize to each other? Apology events in young Israeli peer discourse. Journal of Politeness Research, 3, 39–63.

Katula, R. A. (1975). The apology of Richard M. Nixon. Today’s Speech, 23, 1–6.

Kennedy, K. A., & Benoit, W. L. (1997). The Newt Gingrich book deal controversy: Self-defense rhetoric. Southern Communication Journal, 62, 197–216.

King, R. L. (1985). Transforming scandal into tragedy: A rhetoric of political apology. Quarterly Journal of Speech, 71, 289–301.

Koesten, J., & Rowland, R. C. (2004). The rhetoric of atonement. Communication Studies, 55, 68–87.

Koutsantoni, D. (2007). “I can now apologize to you twice from the bottom of my heart”: Apologies in Greek reality TV. Journal of Politeness Research, 3, 93–123.

Kramer, M. R., & Olson, K. M. (2002). The strategic potential of sequencing apologia stases: President Clinton’s self-defense in the Monica Lewinsky scandal. Western Journal of Communication, 66, 347–368.

Kruse, N. W. (1977). Motivational factors in non-denial apologia. Central States Speech Journal, 28, 13–23.

Kruse, N. W. (1981a). Apologia in team sport. Quarterly Journal of Speech, 67, 270–283.

Kruse, N. W. (1981b). The scope of apologetic discourse: Establishing generic parameters. Southern Speech Communication Journal, 46, 278–291.

Lazare, A. (2004). On apology. New York: Oxford University Press.

Lazare, A. (2006). Apology in medical practice: An emerging clinical skill. Journal of the American Medical Association, 296, 1401–1404.

Len-Rios, M. E., & Benoit, W. L. (2004). Gary Condit’s image repair strategies: Determined denial and differentiation. Public Relations Review, 30, 95–106.

Liebersohn, Y. Z., Neuman, Y., & Bekerman, Z. (2004). Oh baby, it’s hard for me to say I’m sorry: Public apologetic speech and cultural rhetorical sources. Journal of Pragmatics, 36, 921–944.

Liu, B. F. (2007). President Bush’s major post-Katrina speeches: Enhancing image repair discourse theory applied to the public sector. Public Relations Review, 33, 40–48.

Marrus, M. R. (2007). Official apologies and the quest for historical justice. Journal of Human Rights, 6, 75–105.

Marrus, M. R. (2008). Papal apologies of Pope John Paul II. In M. Gibney, R.E. Howard-Hassmann, J-M. Coicaud, & N. Steiner (Eds.) The age of apology: Facing up to the past (pp. 259–270). Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press.

Miller, B. A. (2002). Divine apology: The discourse of religious image restoration. Westport, CT: Praeger.

Moran, M. G. (2003). Ralph Lane’s 1586 Discourse on the first colony: The Renaissance commercial report as apologia. Technical Communication Quarterly, 12, 125–154.

Morello, J. T. (1979). The public apology of a private matter: Representative Wayne Hays’ address to Congress. Speaker and Gavel, 16, 19–26.

Mueller, A. G. (2004). Affirming denial through preemptive apologia: The case of the Armenian Genocide Resolution. Western Journal of Communication, 68, 24–44.

Negash, G. (2006). Apologia politica: States and their apologies by proxy. Lanham, MD: Lexington Books.

Nelson, J. (1984). The defense of Billie Jean King. Western Journal of Speech Communication, 48, 92–102.

Nobles, M. (2008). The politics of official apologies. New York: Cambridge University Press.

Nytagodien, R. L., & Neal, A. G. (2004). Collective trauma, apologies, and the politics of memory. Journal of Human Rights, 3, 465–475.

Patel, A., & Reinsch, L. (2003). Companies can apologize: Corporate apologies and legal liability. Business Communication Quarterly, 66, 9–25.

Renteln, A. D. (2008). Apologies: A cross-cultural analysis. In M. Gibney, R. E. Howard-Hassmann, J-M. Coicaud, & N. Steiner (Eds.) The age of apology: Facing up to the past (pp. 61–76). Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press.

Rosenfield, L. W. (1968). A case study in speech criticism: The Nixon–Truman analog. Speech Monographs, 35, 435–450.

Ryan, H. R. (1982). Kategoria and apologia: On their rhetorical criticism as a speech act. Quarterly Journal of Speech, 68, 254–261.

Ryan, H. R. (1984). Baldwin vs. Edward VIII: A case study in kategoria and apologia. Southern Speech Communication Journal, 49, 125–134.

Schwartz, B., & Heinrich, H-A. (2006). Shadings of regret: America and Germany. In K. R. Phillips (Ed.), Framing public memory (pp. 115–144). Tuscaloosa: University of Alabama Press.

Scott, M., & Lyman, S. M. (1968). Accounts. American Sociological Review, 33, 46–62.

Sellnow, T. L. (1993). Scientific argument in organizational crisis communication: The case of Exxon. Argumentation & Advocacy, 30, 28–43.

Short, B. (1987). Comic book apologia: The “paranoid” rhetoric of Congressman George Hansen. Western Journal of Speech Communication, 51, 189–203.

Simons, H. W. (2000). A dilemma-centered analysis of Clinton’s August 17th apologia: Implications for rhetorical theory and method. Quarterly Journal of Speech, 86, 438–453.

Smith, N. (2005). The categorical apology. Journal of Social Philosophy, 36, 473–496.

Smith, N. (2008). I was wrong: The meanings of apologies. New York: Cambridge University Press.

Smudde, P. M., & Courtright, J. L. (2008). Time to get a job: Helping image repair theory begin a career in industry. Public Relations Journal, 2, 1–20.

Stein, K. A. (2008). Apologia, antapologia, and the 1960 Soviet U-2 incident. Communication Studies, 59, 19–34.

Sugimoto, N, (Ed.). (1999). Japanese apology across disciplines. Commack, NY: Nova Science.

Sullivan, D. L. (1998). Francis Schaeffer’s apparent apology in Pollution and the death of man. Journal of Communication and Religion, 21, 200–229.

Sullivan, D. L., & Martin, M. S. (2001). Habit formation and story telling: A theory for guiding ethical action. Technical Communication Quarterly, 10, 251–272.

Suzuki, T., & van Eemeren, F. H. (2004). “This painful chapter”: An analysis of Emperor Akihito’s apologia in the context of Dutch old sores. Argumentation and Advocacy, 41, 102–111.

Taft, L. (2005). Apology and medical mistake: Opportunity or foil? Annals of Health Law, 14, 55–94.

Tavuchis, N. (1991). Mea culpa: A sociology of apology and reconciliation. Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press.

Tian, D. (2007). U.S. and NATO apologies for the Chinese embassy bombing: A categorical analysis. International Journal of Communication, 1, 360–376.

Towner, E.B. (2009). “Apologia, image repair, and reconciliation: The application, limitations, and future directions of apologetic rhetoric.” In C. S. Beck (Ed.), Communication yearbook 33 (pp. 431–468). New York, Routledge.

Towner, E.B. (2010). “A <patriotic> apologia: The transcendence of the Dixie Chicks.” Rhetoric Review, 29, 293-309.

Towner, E.B. (2010). “Truly public apologies: Third-party participation in Rwandan apologetic rhetoric.” Qualitative Research Reports in Communication, 11.

Tsosie, R. (2006). The BIA’s apology to Native Americans: An essay on collective memory and collective conscience. In E. Barkan & A. Karn (Eds.), Taking wrongs seriously: Apologies and reconciliation (pp. 185–212). Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press.

Tucker, S., Turner, N., Barling, J., Reid, E., & Elving, C. (2006). Apologies and transformational leadership. Journal of Business Ethics, 63, 195–207.

Ulmer, R. R., Sellnow, T. L., & Seeger, M. W. (2006). Effective crisis communication: Moving from crisis to opportunity. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.

Vartabedian, R. A. (1985a). From Checkers to Watergate: Richard Nixon and the art of contemporary apologia. Speaker and Gavel, 22, 52–61.

Vartabedian, R. A. (1985b). Nixon’s Vietnam rhetoric: A case study of apologia as generic paradox. Southern Speech Communication Journal, 50, 366–381.

Vartabedian, R. A., & Vartabedian, L. (2003). Clinton’s address to the nation: A case study of apologetic goals. Speaker and Gavel, 40, 28–46.

Veil, S. (2005). To answer, or not to answer—that is the question of the hour: Image restoration strategies and media coverage of past drug use questions in the presidential campaigns of Bill Clinton and George W. Bush. Speaker and Gavel, 42, 58–78.

Villadsen, L. S. (2008). Speaking on behalf of others: Rhetorical agency and epideictic functions in official apologies. Rhetoric Society Quarterly, 38, 25–45.

Ware, B. L., & Linkugel, W. L. (1973). They spoke in defense of themselves: On the generic criticism of apologia. Quarterly Journal of Speech, 59, 273–283.

Weyeneth, R. R. (2001). History, memory, and apology: The power of apology and the process of historical reconciliation. The Public Historian, 23, 9–38.

Yamazaki, J. W. (2004). The failure of Japanese apologies for World War II. In G. M. Chen & W. J. Starosta (Eds.), Dialogue among diversities: International and intercultural communication annual 27 (pp. 169–190). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.

Yamazaki, J. W. (2005). Japanese apologies for World War II: A rhetorical study. New York: Routledge.

Zhang, J., & Benoit, W. L. (2004). Message strategies of Saudi Arabia’s image restoration campaign after 9/11. Public Relations Review, 20, 161–167.

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